Relief is the oldest form of printmaking. The basic principle of relief printing is to create an image from the raised surface of the matrix.
Common types of relief prints:
> WOODCUT / WOOD ENGRAVING
Intaglio is the precise opposite of relief printmaking. The image is carved onto the matrix and then rubs ink into carved lines. When dampened paper is laid over the matrix and squashed through a etching press, the paper is pushed into the grooves of the inked lines, thus transferring the image onto the paper.
Lithography is based on the concept of mutual incompatibility of oil and water. Lithography was invented by Aloysius Senefelder in 1796. It was discovered by chemically treating a grease crayon drawing on the surface of limestone.
Lithography is one of the most direct printmaking methods where images are executed on a flat surface.
Serigraphic prints are based on stencil. It is a concept of using a sheet of impenetrable material with a design cut into it. This is placed over a receiving surface. Thus, the paint applied on top of the stencil only reaches the receiving surface where the design has been cut away. Silkscreen / Screenprint is the most commonly known form of serigraphic printmaking.